The Foundation is a cooperative institution set up by the Parliamentary Group for Animal Experimentation Questions (public organ), Interpharma (Novartis Pharma Ltd, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Serono Ltd and the associated members Actelion Ltd, Cilag Ltd and Vifor Ltd) and the Foundation for Animal-Free Research (animal protection). It was entered in the commercial register on 18th August, 1987.
The funds provided to subsidise research stem from the Federal Veterinary Office and Interpharma.
The purpose of the 3R Research Foundation Switzerland is to promote alternative research methods which avoid the use of animals, through grants for research projects. The organisation supports first and foremost projects aimed at developing new methods or refining accepted methods (validation) which offer practical improvements vis-à-vis standard animal experimentation in line with the 3R motto Reduce, Refine, Replace.
A broad range of projects is sponsored on the condition that they are likely to reduce the number of animals used or the stress and/or pain suffered. Projects considered must be based on the Foundation’s three principles and are mainly in the bio-medical multidisciplinary field.
In its nineteenth year of existence the Administrative Board met twice, in April and December, for a half-day meeting. Apart from the statutory business concerning the end of the business year 2004, the Board addressed the following issues.
Research funds for 2005 were allotted to 11 projects already underway. In addition, 5 new projects were approved, while 12 applications were rejected. The Board also took note of the final assessment by the Evaluation Committee of 7 projects which had been completed in the previous year. In view of the 5th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences to be held in Berlin, it was decided to sponsor the participation of five people who would present a project funded by the 3R Foundation. Furthermore, it was decided in principle to replace the outdated brochure drawn up in 1987 by a new version which would present the problems and aims of the 3Rs principle in a more generally comprehensible way. Finally the Administrative Board noted the results of a survey among former and current project managers regarding the value of the Foundation’s work. The survey revealed around 40 publications that relate directly or indirectly to a project funded by the Foundation.
With the support of the scientific adviser, the Evaluation Committee held two meetings during the year, where in particular they assessed new applications and evaluated completed projects. The voluntary work of the members of the Evaluation Committee in this connection is much appreciated.
The scientific adviser's tasks included publishing the 3R Info Bulletin (as a brochure and on the Foundation’s website at www.forschung3r.ch), writing brief scientific reports in English which present the projects receiving funding and regularly updating the Foundation’s website. He was also busy completing the 3R Training Course internet learning programme and observing how people interested in the course got on from a practical point of view. He also devoted a good deal of time to advising applicants and project leaders, calling for intermediate reports, evaluating draft projects, dealing with enquiries and explaining the rejection of applications. Finally he represented the Foundation at several conferences in Switzerland and abroad, namely the 5th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences in Berlin and the Annual General Meeting of the European Consensus Platform for 3R Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (http://ecopa.vub.ac.be) in Brussels.
During the year 7 projects were completed (56/97, 67/99, 70/99, 77/01, 78/01, 81/02, 83/02). Together with those projects completed earlier (1-5/87, 6-15/88, 16/89, 17-20/90, 21-24/91, 25-42/92, 43-44/95, 45-55/96, 57-62/97, 64/97, 65/98, 66/99, 68-69/99, 71-75/00, 76/01 and 79/01) this brings the total of finished projects to 80 out of 99.
The Foundation provided indirect support for the Congress by sponsoring the participation of five people who presented a project funded by the 3R Foundation through 5 papers and 4 posters.
The 3½-day congress (11th – 15th August) in Berlin attracted 850 participants from 46 countries, thereby achieving a good reputation. The topics addressed covered a broad range of areas. The focus, however, was on the recognition of pain in laboratory animals (anaesthesia and analgesia) and the introduction of non-invasive methods in animal experimentation. Presentation about non-invasive methods included the use of MRI (structures), PET (metabolism) or Doppler in various types of experiments. These methods normally lead to a reduction in the number of animals required per experiment (longitudinal studies), and often too to less stress for the animal during the experiment. The short formula 3R = more significant and more scientific animal experimentation, and therefore the old principle too of the better known the mechanisms the easier it is to replace an animal experiment were in general corroborated.
The Foundation has set up the 3R Training Course internet learning programme to offer individual, specialised further training for people who carry out or supervise animal experiments. This course is available in German and English at http://3R-training.tierversuch.ch. Texts, images, links and documents provide visitors to the site with information on alternatives to animal experimentation.
The 3R Training Course has been recognised by the Association of Cantonal Veterinary Surgeons as a further training course within the meaning of the Federal Veterinary Office’s ordinance of 12th October 1998 on the basic and further training of persons involved in animal experimentation (SR 455.171.2). During 2005 people were hesitant to use the new online course, although nine certificates confirming that people had passed the on-line examination were issued.
In December 2005 Prof. Thomas Lutz of the Institute for Veterinary Physiology, University of Zurich, was elected to the Evaluation Committee.
In 2005 three new 3R Info-Bulletins were published again with a print-run of 1,000 copies each. The Information Bulletins are also published on the Foundation’s website. With the easily readable reports of successfully completed projects, the Information Bulletins are an excellent advert for the Foundation’s activities.
To date the following 3R Information Bulletins have been published in English:
|1||June 1994||Foundation Research 3R|
|2||Sept. 1994||mAbs without mice?|
|3||Dec. 1994||Gerhard Zbinden and 3R|
|4||April 1995||Predicting human drug metabolism|
|5||August 1995||Human recombinant antibodies|
|6||Sept. 1995||Call for 3R-Research Proposals|
|7||March 1996||The three 'R's of Russel & Burch, 1959|
|8||August 1996||Regulation of digestion in cell culture|
|9||October 1996||Permanent fish cell cultures as novel tools in environmental toxicology|
|10||August 1997||Ten years 3R Research Foundation|
|11||March 1999||Immunization of laboratory animals|
|12||Sept. 1999||Leishmaniasis: Development of an in vitro assay for drug screening|
|13||January 2000||Identification of neurotoxic chemicals in cell cultures|
|14||May 2000||Transgenic protozoa as an alternative to transgenic animals|
|15||Sept. 2000||Aggregating brain cell cultures: Investigation of stroke related brain damage|
|16||January 2001||:Housing and husbandry conditions affect stereotypic behaviour in laboratory gerbils|
|17||May 2001||Fever in the test tube - towards a human(e) pyrogen test|
|18||Sept. 2001||Prevention of adverse effects in pigs after vaccination|
|19||January 2002||Phenotype characterisation and welfare assessment of transgenic mice|
|20||May 2002||Animal-free screening of biological materials for their contamination by rodent viruses|
|21||Sept. 2002||Identification of new human skin irritation markers for tests with human skin reconstructs|
|22||January 2003||Environmental enrichment does not affect the variability of animal experimentation data in the Light/Dark test.|
|23||May 2003||Simulation of stroke related damage in cultured human nerve cells.|
|24||Sept. 2003||Generation of parasite cysts in cultured cells instead of living animals.|
|25||January 2004||Formation of new blood vessels in the heart can be studied in cell cultures.|
|26||May 2004||Immune cells in the liver: The generation and use of a mouse Kupffer cell line|
|27||Sept. 2004||The tick blood meal: From a living animal or from a silicone membrane?|
|28||January 2005||Bone metabolism and bone-biomaterial interactions can be studied ex vivo|
|29||May 2005||Computer-based quantification of (adverse) effects triggered by drugs and chemicals|
|30||Sept. 2005||Environmental enrichment does not disrupt standardization|
|31||January 2006||Improvement of Pain Therapy in Laboratory Mice|
During 2005 around Fr. 540,600 was used for research grants. Project supervision and information accounted for around Fr. 115,800, including Fr. 13,000 for further work on the 3R internet learning programme; administrative expenses totalled Fr. 62,600. Total expenditure was consequently around Fr. 719,000. The amount spent on research for current projects (Fr. 522,200) was thus approximately Fr. 173,200 below budget (Fr. 695,400). This is mainly due to the fact that three projects each required Fr. 40,000 less funding than expected. Furthermore, the 5% reserve (Fr. 46,800 budgeted) was paid out in only one case owing to the late submission of final reports. A sum of Fr. 12,500 was used to sponsor five participants at the Congress in Berlin and an application for Fr. 18,400 to cover consumables for a project was approved, as an exception. Operational expenditure for project supervision, information and administration totalled around Fr. 166,000 and was thus Fr. 19,000 under budget (Fr. 185,000). This difference can be accounted for by the fact that both the further development of the 3R internet learning programme and administrative costs were below budget.
On the income side, the equal financial commitment of the federal authorities and Interpharma constitutes the basis for the Foundation’s activities, each body donating a sum of Fr. 445,000 to 3R.
Income totalled around Fr. 899,200 (federal authorities and Interpharma together Fr. 890,000, interest on bank account Fr. 2,400, repayment of funds granted Fr. 5,900, exam fees for 3R Training Course Fr. 900) while total expenditure amounted to Fr. 719,000, which gives a positive balance of approximately Fr. 180,200. The balance of unused research funds therefore rose from around Fr. 577,000 at the end of 2004 to Fr. 757,200 at the end of 2005.
The budget for 2006 includes a sum of around Fr. 656,000 for current projects and a maximum of Fr. 600,000 for new projects.
At the end of 2005 a total of Fr. 13,813,475.90 had been granted for projects and other subsidies, of which a total of Fr. 12,625,954.05 has been paid out so far. Together the federal authorities and Interpharma have contributed Fr. 15,158,000 to the Foundation since 1987.
|Profit and loss account 2005||Expenditure||Income|
|Federal contribution||445 000.00|
|Contribution from Interpharma||445 000.00|
|Total contributions||890 000.00|
|Interest on bank account||2 374.88|
|Research funds repaid||5 930.85|
|Total income||899 205.73|
|Research grants||540 636.00|
|Project supervision and information||115 758.59|
|Administrative expenses||62 577.41|
|Total expenditure||718 972.00|
|Excess income over expenditure||180 233.73|
|Balance as per 31st December 2005||Assets||Liabilities|
|Accounting apportionment assets||891.00|
|Accounting apportionment liabilities||17 778.30|
|Unused project funds|
|Carried forward 1. 1. 2005||577 013.06|
|Excess income over expend||180 233.73||757 246.79|
|Capital of the Foundation||1 000.00|
|776 025.09||776 025.09|
|Approved research grants not yet paid out||Sfr. 1 187 521.85.|
Münsingen, 21st March 2006
3R RESEARCH FOUNDATION
President: signed Dr. Hugo Wick
Secretary: signed E. Diener
As 3R Research Foundation's auditors we have examined the books and the annual financial statements (balance sheet and profit and loss account) for the year ending 31st December 2005.
The Administrative Board is responsible for drawing up the financial statements while our task is to check and assess them. We hereby confirm that we are duly qualified to do this and that we have no vested interest in the Foundation.
We have checked the accounts and statements according to the generally accepted principles of accounting, by which this task must be planned and carried out in such a way that important errors in the financial statements are reasonably certain to be identified. We checked the entries and information in the statements in an analytical and investigative way using random samples. Furthermore, we assessed the implementation of standard accounting principles, the main evaluations and the presentation of the accounts as a whole. We are of the opinion that our examination provides a solid basis for our assessment of the accounts and statements of 3R.
In our opinion, the accounts have been kept and the financial statements have been drawn up according to the relevant laws and the statutes and regulations of the Foundation.
We therefore recommend that they be approved.
Gümligen, 21st March 2006
KPMG Fides Peat
signed Martin Hirsiger
signed Ursula Waber, Cert. Auditor